Home > Blog > Learn to Meditate > Mindfulness > The Beginner’s Guide to Pranayama

The Beginner’s Guide to Pranayama

Idanim logo
by Team Idanim




  • Share it on
  • Copy Link Icon
 The Beginner’s Guide to Pranayama

Picture a life where your body is healthy and your mind is stress-free. Ancient Indian philosophers envisioned this and crafted a path to achieve it. Their secret? The art of mindful breathing, collectively known as Pranayama. Rooted in the profound teachings of ancient Indian Yogis, Pranayama is a holistic practice that encompasses physical, mental, and spiritual dimensions. Embark on a journey to holistic well-being with our complete guide to Pranayama. Let's dive into the serene world of breath and discover the transformative power of this age-old tradition!

What is Pranayama?

Pranayama, a Sanskrit term, is a fusion of two words: "Prana," meaning life force or vital energy, and "Ayama," meaning control or expansion. At its core, Pranayama involves conscious control and regulation of the breath to enhance the flow of prana/energy throughout the body. This practice goes beyond mere breathing exercises; it is a mindful exploration of the vital energy that sustains life.

The roots of Pranayama can be traced back to ancient Indian practices, particularly the yogic traditions found in texts like the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. These ancient sages recognized the intimate connection between breath, mind, and spirit. Through dedicated practice, they harnessed the power of Pranayama to attain physical vitality, mental clarity, and spiritual enlightenment.

Benefits of Pranayama

Over the years, scientists have discovered numerous benefits of Pranayama breathing. A study conducted in 2020 highlighted the positive impact of deep breathing on emotions and overall well-being. The deliberate inhalation through the nostrils, inducing a slow breathing pattern, triggers the parasympathetic nervous system which helps us recover from stress. Let's walk through some of the amazing benefits of Pranayama you can reap through Pranayama exercises:

  • Stress Reduction: Pranayama acts as a reliable stress-buster by activating the parasympathetic nervous system, triggering a calm and relaxed state. With each mindful breath, stress dissipates, paving the way for tranquility.

  • Improved Lung Function: Pranayama exercises, such as deep diaphragmatic breathing, strengthen respiratory muscles and improve lung capacity. This, in turn, promotes better oxygen exchange, keeping our respiratory system in healthier shape.

  • Mental Clarity and Focus: Have you ever felt a foggy mind? Pranayama acts as a mental windshield wiper, clearing away mental fog and enhancing focus. The rhythmic flow of breath brings about a sense of calm, allowing the mind to sharpen its focus and concentrate more effectively.

  • Emotional Balance: Our emotions can sometimes resemble a rollercoaster ride. Pranayama offers a stabilizing force. By regulating the breath, this practice harmonizes the fluctuations of emotions, promoting emotional resilience and balance. It's like an emotional reset button.

  • Improved Sleep Quality: For those tossing and turning at night, Pranayama might be the remedy. The calming effects of mindful breathing prepare the body for rest, making it an excellent prelude to a restful night's sleep. Bid farewell to sleepless nights and embrace the gift of rejuvenating sleep.

  • Boosts Immune System: The immune system, our body's defense mechanism, gets a boost from the practice of Pranayama. The increased oxygenation and improved circulation contribute to a healthier immune system, better equipped to ward off illnesses.

Popular Pranayama Techniques to Try

Kapalbhati Pranayama

Kapalbhati Pranayama, often referred to as the "Skull-Shining Breath," is a powerful and energizing breathing technique in the practice of yoga. The name "Kapalbhati" is derived from two Sanskrit words: "Kapal," meaning skull, and "Bhati," meaning shining or illuminating. It is one of the most effective techniques that help detoxify the body and clear the energy channels. This technique involves a forceful and rhythmic exhalation through the nose, while the inhalation occurs naturally as the abdomen relaxes. Kapalbhati is known for its invigorating effect, providing a burst of energy and revitalizing the entire system. The forceful exhalations help clear the respiratory passages, removing toxins and promoting overall respiratory health. The optimal time to practice Kapalbhati is early morning (during sunrise) on an empty stomach. This is a beginner friendly pranayama, but people with high blood pressure, hernia, and heart conditions should consult with a qualified Yoga instructor before practicing.

How to Do it
  • Place your hands on your knees with palms facing upward in a gesture of receptivity. This helps maintain a sense of openness during the practice. For beginners, it is suggested to keep your hands on the abdomen and chest to feel contraction while exhaling.

  • Close your eyes and take a few deep breaths to relax. Bring your attention to your breath and clear your mind of distractions.

  • As you exhale forcefully, contract your abdominal muscles, pushing the breath out in short bursts. The emphasis is on the exhalation; the inhalation happens naturally as you release the abdominal muscles.

Watch this video to learn how to practice Kapalbhati Pranayama.

Nadi Shodhana Pranayama

Nadi Shodhana Pranayama, also known as Alternate Nostril Breathing, is a yogic breathing technique designed to balance the flow of energy in the body and promote mental clarity. "Nadi" in Sanskrit refers to energy channels, and "Shodhana" means purification. This pranayama involves alternating the breath between the left and right nostrils, aiming to harmonize the two sides of the body and mind.

Nadi Shodhana helps balance the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, promoting a state of relaxation and calmness. The alternating breath pattern encourages focus and concentration, clearing the mind of mental chatter. Nadi Shodhana Pranayama is suitable for practitioners of various levels, and regular practice can bring about a sense of inner harmony and balance.

Nadi Shodhana is suggested to practice early in the morning on an empty stomach. This is one of the safest practices. Preganant women and those who are at a risk of heart diseases should avoid practicing this Pranayama.

How to Do it

In Nadi Shodhana Pranayama, you use the hand mudra, known as Mrigi Mudra. It involves folding the ring finger and little finger toward the palm while keeping the other fingers extended. The thumb is often used to close off one nostril, and the index and middle fingers are used to close off the other nostril alternatively during the practice.

Position your fingers: Fold your ring finger and little finger towards your palm while keeping the other fingers extended.

  • Bring your right hand to your face. Use the thumb to close off the right nostril and the ring finger or pinky finger to close off the left nostril. The middle and index fingers can rest gently on the forehead or between the eyebrows.

  • Close off the right nostril with your right thumb and exhale completely through the left nostril. Inhale slowly and deeply through the left nostril.

  • Close off the left nostril with your right ring finger, release the right nostril, and exhale completely through the right nostril. Inhale slowly and deeply through the right nostril.

  • Continue this pattern, alternating the breath between the left and right nostrils.

  • End the practice by completing a full cycle and finishing with an exhalation through the right nostril.

You can learn to practice Nadi Shodhana with this video

Bhramari Pranayama

Bhramari Pranayama, often called Bee Breath, is a breathing technique that produces a gentle humming sound during exhalation. The word "Bhramari" is derived from the Sanskrit word "Bhramar," which means bee. This pranayama is named after the buzzing sound that resembles the humming of a bee when practiced.

Bhramari is known to relieve tension in the head and face, potentially easing headaches and migraines. The soothing sound and controlled breath help calm the nervous system, reducing stress and anxiety. Regular practice is believed to have a positive impact on the throat and vocal cords.

Bhramari Pranayama can be practiced at any time of the day on an empty stomach. But if you practice it before bed, it will help improve the sleep quality. This pranayama is one of the safest practices for all age groups. However, this is not a suitable exercise for pregnant women or those who are struggling with mental health problems. It is advisable to consult a Yoga instructor before practicing.

How to Do it
  • In this practice, you must gently place your thumb on your ears, close them and allow your other fingers to rest lightly on your face.

  • Take a deep breath through your nose. Inhale slowly and fully.

  • ur nose. Inhale slowly and fully.

  • Begin to make a low-pitched, steady humming sound, mimicking the gentle hum of a bee while exhaling.

  • Allow the sound to resonate throughout your head and chest.

You can practice along with this Bhramari Paranayam meditation tutorial for better understanding.

Ujjayi Pranayama

Ujjayi Pranayama, often referred to as Ocean Breath, is a popular and calming breathing technique. The name "Ujjayi" is derived from the Sanskrit words "Uj" meaning "to conquer" and "Jaya" meaning "victory." This technique involves controlled breathing with a slight constriction of the throat, producing a distinctive sound similar to ocean waves.

Ujjayi Pranayama is often incorporated into yoga asana (posture) practice, helping synchronize breath with movement. The slow and audible nature of Ujjayi breath activates the parasympathetic nervous system, promoting a sense of calm and relaxation. The controlled breath generates internal heat, aiding in the purification of the body and supporting flexibility.

How to Do it
  • Inhale deeply through your nose, expanding your chest.

  • As you exhale, slightly constrict the back of your throat, creating a gentle hissing or ocean-like sound.

  • Maintain the constriction in your throat as you continue to breathe, both inhaling and exhaling.

  • Breathe slowly and mindfully, making the sound audible to yourself.

Watch this brief video to learn how to practice Ujjayi Pranayama.

Sheetali Pranayama

Sheetali Pranayama, often referred to as Cooling Breath, is a yoga breathing technique designed to bring a sense of coolness to the body and mind. The word "Sheetali" is derived from the Sanskrit root "Sheet," meaning cool or cold. This particular Pranayama is known for its calming and soothing effects, making it especially beneficial for reducing stress, anxiety, and excess body heat.

Sheetali Pranayama has a calming influence on the nervous system, making it an effective tool for reducing stress, anxiety, and nervous tension. While Sheetali Pranayama is generally safe for most people, it may not be suitable for those with respiratory issues and low blood pressure.

How to Do it
  • Extend your tongue and roll it into a tube-like shape, similar to a straw. If you find it challenging to roll the tongue, you can slightly part your lips and create a small opening between them.

  • Inhale slowly and deeply through the rolled tongue or the parted lips, drawing the breath in like you would through a straw.

  • Close your mouth and exhale slowly through the nose. Ensure that the exhalation is calm and controlled.

Watch this brief video to learn how to practice Sheetali Pranayama.

Discover Pranayama with Idanim, a mindful meditation app designed to help people initiate and deepen their meditation, mindfulness, and spiritual practices. We aim to guide individuals towards inner peace, joy, and emotional well-being.

With over 1000+ guided mindfulness meditations across 40+ categories, such as learning to meditate, managing stress, alleviating anxiety, improving sleep, boosting confidence, and nurturing relationships. Idanim is more than an app; it is your trusted companion in navigating the challenges of daily life.

With over 200 years of combined mindfulness expertise, we ensure you receive the best guidance. We also host 'LIVE sessions,' featuring globally renowned teachers, including monks, for Masterclasses and daily mindfulness practices. These sessions provide a unique opportunity for you to interact directly with experts and learn from their profound wisdom. Join us on a journey towards increased productivity, lowered stress levels, and a more peaceful mind. Download Idanim on App Store and Play Store today.